Saturday, July 25, 2020

There are Certain Things You Cant Prepare for Prior to Studying Abroad

There are Certain Things You Cant Prepare for Prior to Studying Abroad There are certain things you can’t prepare for prior to studying abroad. Being in the near-direct path of a super typhoon is one of them. It’s roughly 9:30am on Wednesday, Sept. 12,  and I’m sitting in the back row of my organizational behavior lecture. I’ve been in Hong Kong for the better part of two weeks at this point. The professor starts class and says something to the effect of “I don’t know if you’ve heard yet but there’s probably going to be a typhoon coming this weekend. I hope our class doesn’t get canceled on Monday. I seemed to recall from my freshman year ATMS 100 class that a typhoon is the same thing as a hurricane, but occurs in the Pacific Ocean as opposed to the Atlantic. I do a quick google search to confirm. My next search is “typhoon Hong Kong”, and I go to the news section to skim through a few articles. I see phrases like super typhoon (this one is called Manghkut), strongest winds on record, and potential level 10 warning (whatever that means, but it definitely didn’t sound great). How could my professor cover such news in about 15 seconds, and then promptly move on to how attitudes impact performance in the workplace? Surely there’s more to talk about than maybe class gets canceled Monday, but I hope not. Regardless, I read more articles and decide I need to investigate this issue further on the ground. After class, I ask a few local classmates about typhoons in Hong Kong. They also seem to not be concerned, as typhoons apparently tend to reach the region every year, and Hong Kong has developed infrastructure to withstand these storms. I remain on edge. As the week progresses, however, the mood on campus shifts from an early semester ease to anxious preparation. More news comes out, indicating that the storm’s winds and proximity to Hong Kong could make it the strongest to hit the region ever. As in, of all recorded typhoons to reach Hong Kong (and there have been a few), this would be the worst one. The school announces that the canteens and restaurants will be closed all day Sunday. Fusion, the on-campus grocery store, can’t keep up with the demand for water, ramen, and other non-perishables. Fast forward to Sunday morning. Outside of my dorm window trees were beginning to bend under the weight of the storm, and when I step out into the hall there’s a constant whistle from the wind entering any small window gap missed during preparation. To get a little better perspective here: the entire campus is built into the side of a mountain, and the dorms are built so that half of the rooms face the mountain, and half face the bay (the picture below should help). I am one of the unlucky ones who wake up to a view of the trees as opposed to the bay. But, on the day of Mangkhut, I felt fortunate as those facing the bay faced significant water damage and electrical outages throughout the storm. Birds eye view of campus, where you can see the dorm rooms facing the mountain (left side). The storm lasts all day, and while many trees are uprooted and the road closest to the bay was ripped up, everyone ends up safe. Turns out, the locals were right, this campus was built for storms like this. Classes are canceled on Monday, likely to the chagrin of my org behavior professor, but we resume business as usual on Tuesday. Or something like that. Because while no one on campus was injured, we were all effectively paralyzed during the days leading up to and including the storm. The barely established routines of faculty and students (myself certainly included) had been thrown well off course. Everything that wasn’t Mangkhut related had to grind to a halt for those days, and then reboot into both physical and metaphorical cleanup mode as soon as the storm passed. A sampling of the damage done on campus So, how did enduring a super typhoon enrich my study abroad experience? The snap reaction I had was that it hadn’t. It dismantled a lot of the progress that I had made in developing roots on campus. It made me uncomfortable, anxious, and frustrated. But that’s kind of the whole point of studying abroad. Expanding my comfort zone must include periods of, well, feeling uncomfortable. And discounting the experience as an aberration or a freak incident would be the same as discounting all of the other once-in-a-lifetime experiences that occur pretty frequently here. I’d never experienced anything like it, was forced to adjust, and now have the experience to look back on and use as somewhat of a reference for what I am capable of going forward. I must apologize for the lack of content this semester, but that’s going to change. I will start using this blog again as an outlet for recounting and reflecting further on my experience here. I hope you enjoy it. Talk soon. Steven Class of 2019 I’m from New Canaan, Connecticut. I'm studying Management Entrepreneurship in the Gies College of Business and Political Science in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences.

Friday, May 8, 2020

Sir Isaac Newton An Important Figure in Scientific History

Sir Isaac Newton History has been characterized by important discoveries made by the worlds scientists. These men and women are responsible for everything that has led humanity from the cave-dwelling Neanderthals of ancient times to the position that they hold today. Scientists are responsible for the wheel, for fire, for tools, for every single thing that people have come to accept as a part of existence. Without scientific investigation, people could not progress and society as a whole would not be able to develop. With each scientific discovery, the world at large improves and changes into a well-developed and universally intelligent entity. During times of growth, scientific inquiry has made large-scale progressions in short periods of time. In the 17th century, the world went through a period of Enlightenment, where scientific inquiry was praised and encouraged. With such a large number of individuals all advancing the population at the same time and encouraging one anothers inv estigations, it is not surprising that this was a time when a large number of important discoveries were made. Perhaps one of the most important scientific minds in world history was Sir Isaac Newton who was an important figure not only in his own time, but founded scientific principles which would affect human beings for the rest of time. The man who would become Sir Isaac Newton was born in England in 1643. He lost his father early and his mother remarried. The loss of a beloved fatherShow MoreRelatedThe Contributions of Isaac Newton Essay1352 Words   |  6 PagesNature and natures laws lay hid in night: God said, let Newton be! And all was light. - - Alexander Pope The Enlightenment characterizes a philosophical movement of the 18th century that emphasized the use of reason to analyze and scrutinize all previously accepted traditions and doctrines. Through this application of scientific method to all aspects of life, the role of science gradually replaced the role of religion. Sir Isaac Newton, quite possibly one of the most intelligent men to existRead More Sir Isaac Newtons Role in the Enlightenment Essay1558 Words   |  7 Pages Isaac Newton had a huge impact on the Enlightenment, he influenced it scientifically in many ways and he influenced faith and reason in a tremendous way. He was known more for his scientific achievements then his religious works.His background and education affected when he made these great achievements. Isaac Newton born on December 25,1642 in Woolsthorpe, England grew up, he was the most important physicist and mathematician of all time.1 Newton attended Cambridge where he studied mathematicsRead MoreSir Isa ac Newton s Scientific Revolution2037 Words   |  9 PagesSir Isaac Newton, one of the leading figures of the scientific revolution, discovered numerous fundamental laws of physics. Here’s the catch--he started discovering them at just 23 years old! Isaac Newton’s scientific work throughout the 17th century impacted the modern world with a turning point in history that would change the way we deal with modern science and mathematics. Isaac Newton is often referred to as the â€Å"father of science,† an honorary name. Newton’s work has greatly impacted not onlyRead MoreThe Endless Contributions of Isaac Newton Essay1442 Words   |  6 PagesSir Isaac Newton once said, â€Å"We build too many walls and not enough bridges.† Aside from his countless contributions to the worlds of math and science, this may be his most important quote because it is what he based his life on—building bridges of knowledge. Throughout his life he was devoted to e xpanding his and others knowledge past previously known realms. Often regarded of the father of calculus, Newton contributed many notable ideas and functions to the world through his creation of calculusRead MoreThe Discoveries Of The Scientific Revolution1873 Words   |  8 PagesAbstract: Isaac Newton was the most influential figure of the scientific revolution. The scientific revolution brought attention to many figures, Copernicus and Galileo, but Newton is the scientist with most influential changes that that have changed how we think. His research and discovery of gravitation formula led to the scientific method. While that was his most famous discovery, he also had many findings in the mathematical field. Newton changed the way we think and his discovery on gravityRead MoreThe Enlightenment Essay999 Words   |  4 Pages During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the scientific revolution brought about a slow change in societies’ thinking regarding math, earth s cience, physics, and astronomy. Early on, new ideas about our universe were not widely accepted, especially from the church. This soon changed due to the hard work and perseverance of several scientists and philosophers who unbeknownst to them brought about an era known as the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment, which eased into existence in the seventeenthRead MoreThe Accomplishments Of Sir Isaac Newton711 Words   |  3 PagesSir Isaac Newton has been repeatedly portrayed since the last quarter of his life as practically peerless as a natural philosopher. Newton s achievements were unquestionably useful, diverse and exceptionally inspired (although not all of his work has endured or has been considered valuable1). Fara recounts contemporary, repeated declarations of his seemingly unbelievable genius from elite figures such as X and Voltaire2. This theme has continued in popular culture, mostly unchallenged, to the presentRead MoreThe Life and Times of Sir Isaac Newton Essay1609 Words   |  7 PagesSir Isaac Newton was born on January 4, 1643 (based on the Gregorian calendar) in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England. Growing up, he was never really close to his parents because his biological father died three months before he was born. Then, his mother remarried and le ft him to be raised by his grandparents. It was not until 1661, when Newton started studying at Cambridge University, that Newton took an interest in math and science. Then, in 1665, Newton was forced to go home because of anRead MoreThe Scientific Revolution Was Not An Organized Effort1276 Words   |  6 Pages(but it does move) said Galileo Galilei. (Koyre 1943) The scientific revolution marks a decisive break between the middle ages and the modern world, but it was rooted in earlier developments. It’s the link between observation, experiment, and invention. The scientific revolution was not an organized effort; theories sometimes led to a dead end and discoveries were often accidental. The scientific revolution left a permanent imprint upon history and from its legacy developed the colossal modern socialRead MoreMathematics Is That Of Pi ( ÃŽ   )1728 Words   |  7 Pagesyear 1425, a new approach for determining the value of Ï€ was developed by an Indian mathematic ian, Madhava of Sangamagrama, a technique using infinite series which allowed him to find Ï€ to 11 decimal places. With the discovery of Calculus by Sir Issac Newton and work from European mathematicians, such as James Gregory and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz led to the development of many infinite series for approximating Ï€. With the use of infinite products, mathematicians were able to find the value of Ï€

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Police Operations Free Essays

Department Organization Paper â€Å"What if the structure of police organizations is shaped by factors beyond easy human contrivance, such as the size and age of the force, the degree of stability in the political environment, the complexity of governmental regulation, the geographical dispersion of the population, or the nature of police work itself† (Maguire 2003)? In this paper I will describe in detail various types of police agencies at the local, state, and federal level and how each is organized, identify the principal roles and functions of police organizations and their role as it applies to the law, and also identify major organizational theories associated with policing. * There are many different types of police organizations that specifically deal with specific circumstances. On the other hand there are broad organizations that deal with a wider scope of jurisdiction and rules. We will write a custom essay sample on Police Operations or any similar topic only for you Order Now I will just touch on the major organization within police work at the local, state, and federal levels. The first organization (city and county) are the first level of policing. Moreover, these agencies have municipal police, county police, and the county sheriffs. (Wikipedia 2010) â€Å"The Municipal police are law enforcement agencies that are under the control of local government. Their powers are delegated by legislation or directives by higher levels of government† (para. 3). They receive pay by local budgets and have fewer rights than that of state police.Municipal police are generally a part of law enforcement that acts more of a deterrent, only limited by the by the equipment that they carry. They can range from one officer agencies to our own Sacramento PD. The next police organization is state, which includes the state police and bureaus of criminal investigation. State police are controlled by the state supreme courts and are directed by state codes of criminal procedure that define what police must do and what they may not do. â€Å"The most important role of state governments has been to require the licensing or certification of all sworn officers† (Walker and Katz 2008, para. 02). State police have state wide authority to conduct law enforcement activities and also criminal investigations. They perform functions outside the jurisdiction of the county sheriff. Some of their duties include, but are not limited to; enforcing traffic laws on state and interstate highways, protecting the governor, provide technological and scientific support services and help to coordinate with other jurisdictions in aiding serious cases. Another service is the highway patrol that patrols the highways for any infractions concerning traffic and safety. Other state police agencies such as the Bureaus of Investigation (State Detectives), Bureau of Narcotics (Drug Enforcement), Department of Public Safety (provide oversight and coordination over various state level police agencies), and also Marine Patrol (water police), are amongst state patrols. All these agencies have state wide jurisdiction governed by the state supreme courts rule. The last level police organization is the federal government. (Walker and Katz 2008) states, â€Å"The role of each federal agency is specified by federal statute. In important respects, federal agencies have far less complex role than that of municipal agencies.Federal agents do not have the ambiguous and difficult order maintenance responsibilities, do not maintain 911 emergency telephone services, and are not asked to handle vague disturbance calls† (para. 61). â€Å"Federal Law Enforcement Officers are authorized to enforce various laws not only at the federal level, but also state, county, and local in many circumstances† (Wikipedia 2010). There are numerous federal agencies such as, Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, Department of Defense, or Department of Energy to just name a few.All federal agencies are limited by the U. S. Code, but because of the USA PATRIOT Act (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001), federal power has broadened in scope. As (Grant and Terry 2008) state, â€Å"researchers have found four main theories or explanations. The first Psychological theories, argue that core attitudes are formed before the individual enters the police force and are a function of such things as family background, social status, and prior education. Next, Educational theories, state that core attitudes are acquired during police training and early years on the street and are passed on to recruits by older, more experienced police officers. Also, Sociological theories, state that police attitudes are shaped by the daily demands of police work and reflect the â€Å"working culture† of policing. Lastly, Organizational theories, argues that police attitudes and values are shaped by the organizational and working culture of policing and the demands placed upon officers by their police colleagues† (p. 223). Whether officers exhibit similar personality traits and the extent to which hese are caused by predisposing factors or a socialization into the police culture is the subject of many diverse explanations: psychological, educational, sociological, and organizational. ‘The influence of historical factors on officer perceptions of suspiciousness must also be considered in discussing the origins of police culture. Pol ice are in many ways a reflection of the larger societal force in which they are embedded† (Grant and Terry 2008, p. 235).References * Grant, B. amp; Terry, J. (2008). â€Å"Law Enforcement in the 21st Century, (2th)† Retrieved from: https://ecampus. phoenix. du/content/eBookLibrary2/content/DownloadList. aspx? assetMetaId=08c377a1-ea3a-4b46-be5d-363667e36f97amp;assetDataId=86388622-06ef-4ecb-a9bb-bd30d479b2a2 Maguire, E. (2003). â€Å"Organizational Structure in American Police Agencies† Retrieved from: http://books. google. com/books? id=nJtIrM_rtbsCamp;dq=police+departments+organizationamp;printsec=frontcoveramp;source=inamp;hl=enamp;ei=UITlTO-XEIf0swPBlMCxCwamp;sa=Xamp;oi=book_resultamp;ct=resultamp;resnum=11amp;sqi=2amp;ved=0CGQQ6AEwCg#v=onepageamp;q=police%20departments%20organizationamp;f=false Wikipedia, (2010) Retrieved from: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Police * * B. amp; Terry, J. (2008). â€Å"Law Enforcement in the 21st Century, (2th)† Retrieved from: https://ecampus. phoenix. du/content/eBookLibrary2/content/DownloadList. aspx? assetMetaId=08c377a1-ea3a-4b46-be5d-363667e36f97amp;assetDataId=86388622-06ef-4ecb-a9bb-bd30d479b2a2 Maguire, E. (2003). â€Å"Organizational Structure in American Police Agencies† Retrieved from: http://books. google. com/books? id=nJtIrM_rtbsCamp;dq=police+departments+organizationamp;printsec=frontcoveramp;source=inamp;hl=enamp;ei=UITlTO-XEIf0swPBlMCxCwamp;sa=Xamp;oi=book_resultamp;ct=resultamp;resnum=11amp;sqi=2amp;ved=0CGQQ6AEwCg#v=onepageamp;q=police%20departments%20organizationamp;f=false Wikipedia, (2010) Retrieved from: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Police * * How to cite Police Operations, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Plot Analysis of a Rose for Emily Essay Example

Plot Analysis of a Rose for Emily Essay Entry: Plot development of a story or a movie you like A Rose for Emily William Faulkner A Rose for Emily is one of stories in The Collected Stories of William Faulkner (1950). This story is about the life of Emily Grierson, a woman who presents for the last generation of traditional Southern America noble families. The tragic life and death of Miss Emily demonstrates how family’s autocracy and society’s prejudice could ruin a woman’s life who only longs for love, longs for having her own family. As many others remarkable short-story, this Faulkner’s fiction appears with a subtle use of plot. The back and forth between past and present can confuse readers who is familiar with chronological arrangement. Nevertheless, this complicated arrangement has a significant impact on disclosing the grim surprise in the end of the story. A Rose for Emily is divided into five sections. Each section is in proportion to one noticeable event in the life of Emily. The narrator speaks in the â€Å"we† voice – the first-person plural perspective, represents the townspeople of Jefferson. The story is set in the South of American, in a period of time ranging from before to after the Civil War. Therefore, the conflict the story containing is the combination of conflicts inside Emily herself and the society’s conflict. The story begins with the exposition: the announcement of the death of Miss Emily Grierson and how the entire town feels when attending her funeral. â€Å"†¦the men through a sort of respectful affection for a fallen monument, the women mostly out of curiosity to see the inside of her house, which no one†¦ had seen in at least teen years†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The first sentence of the story reveals with reader the isolated life of Emily and the special osition of Emily in the thought of Jefferson’s community. In the narrator’s eyes, she was a â€Å"fallen monument†, a pitiful remnant of the past. To the next paragraph, the narrator describes the Grierson’s old house which long ago used to have a golden age. Now, existing among modern garages and gas pumps which come along with the invasion of the North, this decayed southe rn house is nothing than â€Å"an eyesore among eyesores†. The detail about the house is an implicit introduction for the one of conflicts in A rose for Emily: the conflict between the South and the North. We will write a custom essay sample on Plot Analysis of a Rose for Emily specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Plot Analysis of a Rose for Emily specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Plot Analysis of a Rose for Emily specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer After the short introduction, the narrator starts focusing on Miss Emily – the protagonist of this story. However, the imaged of Miss Emily which is described now is not the young Emily but an old lady living in an ancient house with a â€Å"charitable† tax exemption. Time of the story steps back not at the starting but at a later position. In additional, this situation also leads the readers to the first conflict in the story which is related with Emily’s tax immunity: The conflict between her and the next generation of Jefferson – the town she lived in. In the past, after the death of her father, Colonel Sartoris remitted her taxes forever. Nonetheless, new city authorities did not accept this arrangement. They tried many ways to contact her and make her pay her taxes but none of them work. Finally, they came to her house asking for her to obey. And she turned them down with an extremely cold and determined attitude. By depicting the collapse of her house and even herself, her ugly appearance and her cold words, the narrator give the readers the first impression of who Miss Emily is, shows the readers Emily’s poor life and make the readers curious about her personality. In section two, when the first conflict seems to be resolved, the author takes us to the second conflict by the similarity between it and the first one: the clash between Miss Emily and other people in society. This conflict happened thirty years earlier, two years after her father’s death and a short time after her lover left her. People could not stand the terrible smell from her house but Miss Emily did not do anything to stop it, just like she even did not realize the existence of that smell. At the end, they had to solve the problem on their own by slinking in her house and sprinkled lime there. The conflict ended quickly. After that, the tension of this story temporary pauses with a long suspension. Narrator gives us more information about Miss Emily: her beauty when she was young, her father and his death, her inheritance, her reactions from her father’s death and people’s attitude toward her. Through the cold and severe view of others people in the town, readers could image how hard for Miss Emily to live in that society with deep psychological wounds causing by her father. When he was alive and even after he died, Mr. Grierson has always been a thick chain tying Emily inside their house forever. He had driven away all the young men who wanted to have chance with Miss Emily. In his mind, none of them were quite good enough for her. She still is a single in the age of thirty. Three days after his death, finally, Miss Emily gave up her believe that he was still alive and agreed to bury his body. In section three of the story, author tells the readers about Emily’s love story. A next forth back to the time before the second conflict occurred. The exposition for this part is the coming of workers who paved the sidewalks and the appearance of foreman Homer Barron – Miss Emily’s lover. He was a Yankee. People saw him and Miss Emily going out together. Now the third conflict starts. Since Emily Grierson was noble southern woman while Homer Barron was a construction foreman and a northerner, their relationship was â€Å"wrong† in people’s minds. People began to say â€Å"Poor Emily. † Emily had to suffer the prejudice of society; still she carried her head high and kept her arrogance. The climax of this part and of the whole story comes when Miss Emily went to buy poison. At that time she was over thirty. Her face looked like a lighthouse-keeper’s face. She arrived home with a pack of poison labeled â€Å"For rats†. Combining with the conversation between Miss Emily and the druggist and the information about her lover leaving her mentioned in the flashback before, the narrator put the idea that Miss Emily will commit suicide into the readers’ heads. Section four opens with the detail that the whole town believes Emily would kill herself. It is the same as the idea readers have in mind right now. Time continues to step back for a while before the moment when Emily bought poison. The narrator gives the readers more information about Emily and his lover Homer Barron. Foreshadow appears in the beginning of this section when Homer said that he was not a marrying man. He drank with younger men in the Elks’ Club and then went out on Sunday with Miss Emily. The public relationship of Miss Emily and him irritated townspeople so they tried to interfere by inviting Emily’s cousins to watching her. Homer gone and went back after Emily’s cousins leave Jefferson. People saw him entering Emily’s house. After that, they never saw him again. Poison and a runaway lover, Jefferson’s citizen and readers have enough evidence to believe that Emily will commit suicide. Nevertheless, she was still alive. After that event, she was almost never seen outside of her house, she got older, fatter. The information about her china-painting class which wasn’t last long gives readers the feeling that her existence from that time until the day she died was not thing more than a pathetic remains of the pass. After Emily died, everyone went to her house. Time comes back to the present. People stepped into a room which no one had seen in forty years. They found everything Miss Emily had prepared for her wedding in the past. And what shocked them was a corpse of man lying in the bed. The story slowly comes to the final climax. The narrator and also readers can figure out that Miss Emily had murdered Homer Barron. Then they noticed the indentation of a head in the pillow next to Homer and found out a â€Å"long strand of iron-gray hair† which undoubtedly belonged to Miss Emily. Although narrator doesn’t say anything more, readers immediately know that after Miss Emily killed her lover, she has lain beside him till the day she died. The story ends without a clear satisfied ending or resolution. The last scene of A Rose for Emily is a full of obsessive images. The readers will keep wondering for a long time about the miserable life of Emily and the reason for all of that. Refusing to change, refusing to move, eternally sticking to the dust of past, like a river stone forever stays the same place while water keeps on flowing through, Miss Emily chooses herself that way of ending. The social conflict of a whole era lies inside the complicated life of a pathetic woman. Eventually, the act of murder is just simply an unavoidable result. Despite all her bizarre actions and her murder crime, what reader sees from Miss Emily is nothing but only a victim of hardness and prejudge.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

SCARLET LETTER LOGS essays

SCARLET LETTER LOGS essays Summary: This chapter is about the town and the prison that lay upon the soil. The black flower represents the prison. It also talks about the criminal and how nature takes pity on him. A woman named Anne Hutchson is put into Jail, I think. 1. This is one of the most boring and hard to read chapters I ever read in my life. Summary: This chapter is about when Hester comes out and all the good wives ridicule her. She has a baby in her arms and a scarlet letter on her breast. They make here walk through the market place so everybody can see her. She is set upon the scaffold for 3 hours. The baby was 3 months old when she got out of jail. Hester Pryne is her name. She remembers back in England: her parents and a man she liked and is smart. He comes to the town and he looks mad. 2. The women in the crowd are very cruel. Summary: This chapter is about the interrogation of Hester Pryne and how they are asking her whom she slept with. The preacher sort of tells here to confess who did it with her. They keep yelling at here and she never confesses. 5. I predict that the preacher guy is the man who had sex with Hester. Summary: This chapter is about how Hester goes back to jail and she starts to feel sick and here baby is sick to a physician is ordered to come. He gives the baby something and she says something like she wished it were poison. Hester's husband comes to the jail and they start talking about what had happened. Her husband tries to find out who did it with her. He finds out that Roger Chillinsworth is her husband. ( He changed his name) 3. Hester's husband is smart and intelligent however he is an ugly hunchback. Summary: Hester is released from prison. She has the option of going back to England but she chooses to stay because of the guy she had sex with is there. Nobody wants to hire her for a seamstress at her job. She helps the poor a lot and the others shun her. Then when she goes to...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Biography of William McKinley, 25th U.S. President

Biography of William McKinley, 25th U.S. President William McKinley (January 29, 1843–September 14, 1901) was the 25th president of the United States. Prior to that, he was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives and the governor of Ohio. McKinley was assassinated by an anarchist less than a year into his second term as president. Fast Facts: William McKinley Known For: McKinley was the 25th president of the United States; he oversaw the beginning of U.S. imperialism in Latin America.Born: January 29, 1843 in Niles, OhioParents: William McKinley Sr.  and Nancy McKinleyDied: September 14, 1901 in Buffalo, New YorkEducation: Allegheny College, Mount Union College, Albany Law SchoolSpouse: Ida Saxton (m. 1871–1901)Children: Katherine, Ida Early Life William McKinley was born on January 29, 1843 in Niles, Ohio, the son of  William McKinley, Sr., a pig iron manufacturer, and  Nancy Allison McKinley. He had four  sisters and three brothers. McKinley attended public school and in 1852 enrolled in the Poland Seminary. When he was 17, he enrolled in Allegheny College in Pennsylvania but soon dropped out due to illness. He never returned to college because of financial difficulties and instead taught for a while at a school near Poland, Ohio. Civil War and Legal Career After the Civil War began in 1861, McKinley enlisted in the Union Army and became part of the 23rd Ohio Infantry. Under Colonel Eliakim P. Scammon, the unit headed east to Virginia. It eventually joined the Army of the Potomac and participated in the bloody Battle of Antietam. For his service, McKinley was made a second lieutenant. He later saw action at the Battle of Buffington Island and in Lexington, Virginia. Near the end of the war, McKinley was promoted to major. After the war, McKinley studied law with an attorney in Ohio and later at Albany Law School. He was admitted to the bar in 1867. On January 25, 1871, he married  Ida Saxton. Together they had two daughters, Katherine and Ida, but both sadly died as infants. Political Career In 1887, McKinley was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. He served until 1883 and again from 1885 to 1891. He was elected governor of Ohio in 1892 and held the post until 1896. As governor, McKinley supported other Republicans running for office and promoted business inside the state. In 1896, McKinley was nominated to run for president as the Republican Party nominee with Garret Hobart as his running mate. He was opposed by William Jennings Bryan, who, upon accepting the Democratic nomination, gave his famous Cross of Gold speech in which he denounced the gold standard. The main issue of the campaign was what should back the U.S. currency, silver or gold. McKinley was in favor of the gold standard. In the end, he won the election with 51 percent of the popular vote and 271 out of 447 electoral votes. McKinley easily won the nomination for president again in 1900 and was again opposed by William Jennings Bryan. Theodore Roosevelt ran as McKinleys vice president. The main issue of the campaign was Americas growing imperialism, which the Democrats spoke out against. McKinley won the election with 292 out of 447 electoral votes. Presidency During McKinleys time in office, Hawaii was annexed. This would be the first step toward statehood for the island territory. In 1898, the Spanish-American War began with the Maine incident. On February 15, the U.S. battleship  Maine- which was stationed in Cubas Havana harbor- exploded and sank, killing 266 of the crew members. The cause of the explosion is not known to this day. However, the press- led by newspapers such as those published by William Randolph Hearst- published articles claiming that Spanish mines had destroyed the ship. Remember the Maine! became a popular rallying cry. On April 25, 1898, the United States declared war against Spain. Commodore George Dewey destroyed Spains  Pacific fleet, while Admiral William Sampson destroyed the Atlantic fleet. U.S. troops then captured Manila and took possession of the Philippines. In Cuba, Santiago was captured. The U.S. also captured Puerto Rico before Spain asked for peace. On December 10, 1898, the Paris Peace Treaty was signed. Spain gave up its claim to Cuba and gave Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine Islands to the United States in exchange for $20 million. The acquisition of these territories marked a major turning point in American history; the nation, previously somewhat isolated from the rest of the world, became an imperial power with interests around the globe. In 1899, Secretary of State John Hay created the Open Door policy, where the United States asked for China to make it so that all nations would be able to trade equally in China. However, in June 1900 the Boxer Rebellion occurred, and the Chinese targeted Western missionaries and foreign communities. The Americans joined forces with Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and Japan to stop the rebellion. One final important act during McKinleys time in office was the passage of the Gold Standard Act, which officially placed the United States on the gold standard. Death McKinley was shot two times by anarchist Leon Czolgosz while the president was visiting the Pan-American Exhibit in Buffalo, New York, on September 6, 1901. He died on September 14, 1901. Czolgosz stated that he shot McKinley because he was an enemy of working people. He was convicted of the murder and died by electrocution on October 29, 1901. Legacy McKinley is best remembered for his role in U.S. expansionism; during his time in office, the nation became a world colonial power, controlling territories in the Caribbean, Pacific, and Central America. McKinley was also the third of four U.S. presidents who have been assassinated. His face appears on the $500 bill, which was discontinued in 1969. Sources Gould, Lewis L.  The Presidency of William McKinley. Lawrence: Regents Press of Kansas, 1980.Merry, Robert W.  President McKinley: Architect of the American Century. Simon Schuster Paperbacks, an Imprint of Simon Schuster, Inc., 2018.Morgan, H. W.  William McKinley and His America. 1964.